Scale pits with grain boundary oxidation - 1.4303

 

Because of unfavorable parameter during the solution annealing, too high temperature or too long holding time, strong scale layers can be formed. This scale layer is partly accompanied by stronger formation of scars. Unless by wrongly selected annealing parameters, a furnace disturbance yields the same defect picture. By influence of oxygen at increased temperatures metals (steel in this case) can form oxidic layers on the surface. These are described as a scale. Grain boundary oxidation is a type of the scaling hurrying on ahead at the grain boundaries.

Rod wire 10,00 mm round - solution annealed

Back to material defects

 

Pictures